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Earth Explorer is an online source of news, expertise and applied knowledge for resource explorers and earth scientists. Sponsored by Geosoft.


News & Views

News Archive

December 7, 2016

Geosoft introduces IP and resistivity inversion in VOXI Earth Modelling

Geosoft has added induced polarization and resistivity data inversion to its VOXI Earth Modelling 3D inversion software service. Geoscientists are now able to create detailed 3D models of conductivity and chargeability from IP and resistivity survey data with VOXI. The resulting models can assist in interpreting and targeting regions for mineral and environmental applications...

December 5, 2016

Mexico's Deepwater Round Exceeds Expectations

Some of the world's biggest oil companies showed up Dec. 5 and agreed to invest on the Mexican side of the Gulf of Mexico, proving that deepwater exploration still has a pulse despite challenging market conditions...

November 30, 2016

Magnetic inversion results for Ngamiland available for download

A regional-scale geophysical inversion of magnetic field data in the Ngamiland region of northwestern Botswana is now available for download from the Botswana Geoscience Portal, a partnership initiative of the Botswana Geoscience Institute, industry sponsors and Geosoft...

November 30, 2016

LIGO Resumes Search for Gravitational Waves

After a series of upgrades, the twin detectors of LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, have turned back on and resumed their search for ripples in the fabric of space and time known as gravitational waves. LIGO transitioned from their engineering test runs to full science observations at 8 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on November 30...

November 9, 2016

International Volcano Scientists Unite

For the first time, the United States will host the international Volcano Observatory Best Practices workshop, previously held only in Italy. The workshop will take place this month in Vancouver, Washington. It is designed specifically for volcano observatories around the world and their staff to exchange ideas and best practices with each other...

October 4, 2016

USGS Assesses Mineral Potential for Sagebrush Habitats in Six Western States

USGS has completed a comprehensive assessment and inventory of potential mineral resources covering approximately 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah and Wyoming...

October 3, 2016

Uganda Targets Up to U.S.$100 Million for Mineral Exploration

Uganda is well endowed with mineral resources and, like many naturally-gifted African countries, is becoming keen on ensuring that these resources play a transformative role in its long-term structural transformation dream - the Vision 2040...

September 9, 2016

Small-Scale Fishers Get A Big Boost With First-Of-Its Kind Impact Investment Fund

Conservation organization Rare announces the Meloy Fund for Small-Scale Fisheries at Our Ocean Conference. The Global Environment Facility, one of the largest funders of conservation worldwide, will be investing $6 million into the fund...

September 1, 2016

Scientists take to the skies to track West African pollution

Scientists operating research aircraft over West Africa have detected organic materials in the atmosphere over a number of urban areas, contributing to concerns of the rise in pollution across the region...

August 17, 2016

New IGS Xplore prospectivity maps for Botswana

International Geoscience Services have released a series of base metal prospectivity maps for the Ngamiland District of northwestern Botswana using free geodata available on the recently-launched Botswana Geoscience Portal, hosted by Geosoft. The maps identify favorable areas for copper, zinc and lead mineralization using geological, geochemical and geophysical datasets downloaded directly from the portal.

August 11, 2016

NexGen Makes New High Grade Discovery

NexGen Energy reported the discovery of a new high grade zone of mineralization 4.7 km northeast of the Arrow Deposit as part of an on-going summer drilling program on its 100% owned, Rook I property, Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan...

August 10, 2016

Rampion UXO Disposal to Take Place This Week

E.ON has confirmed that the two unexploded devices, detected along the Rampion offshore cable route will be safely disposed this week following the consultation with the Marine Management Organisation...

August 9, 2016

Diamonds In The Rough: E&Ps Find New Reserves In Mature Basins

The oil industry’s history demonstrates clearly that new plays and prospects have long been found in mature basins that were thought to be well on the way to being squeezed dry. Through the acquisition of new data, developing new concepts and coming up with fresh interpretations, long-producing basins around the world from the North Sea to Malaysia have continued to reveal new riches...

August 8, 2016

Northern Shield Identifies High Quality VTEM Targets at Séquoi

Northern Shield Resources announced the results of the interpretation and modelling of the VTEM survey from the Séquoi Property in the Labrador Trough of Quebec . Séquoi is owned 100% by Northern Shield and is being explored for Noril'sk style Ni-Cu-PGE massive sulphides. After geophysical modelling and interpretation of the VTEM data from Séquoi, six VTEM anomalies of significant interest have been identified...

August 3, 2016

Rio Tinto tailors big data drive to copper

Rio Tinto will put the weight of an exploration big data push and its newly-formed Growth and Innovation group behind its desire to identify a "tier 1" copper asset. Speaking at the annual Diggers & Dealers conference in Kalgoorlie, Growth and Innovation group executive Stephen McIntosh said Australia was "overdue for a tier 1" mineral discovery of any type...

August 1, 2016

Tetra Tech Awarded $200 Million Navy CLEAN Contract

Tetra Tech announced that it has been awarded a $200 million, single-award contract by Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Atlantic. Through the Comprehensive Long-term Environmental Action Navy (CLEAN) contract, Tetra Tech will provide environmental engineering support services to installations within the NAVFAC Atlantic Area of Responsibility...

May 3, 2016

NATO Science for Peace and Security (SPS), MODUM Partners announce "Young Scientist Summer School on Sea Dumped Chemical Weapons"

This international project cooperates closely with CHEMSEA (Search and Assessment of Chemical Weapons) Project for and sharing and knowledge transfer...

April 12, 2016

Monday mad rush for gold stocks

Renewed optimism about the outlook for gold saw investors pile back into gold stocks, pushing many stock to 52-week highs in heavy volumes...

April 11, 2016

Medgold Resources: Continues to Expand the Boticas Gold Project, Portugal; Proposes $200,000 Private Placement

Medgold Resources is pleased to announce new assay results from contiguous rock-chip sampling from the Limarinho South zone at its Boticas gold project in Portugal, which include a highlight of 6.0m @ 5.7 g/t Au...

April 8, 2016

De-carbonizing our energy sector

Nuclear energy currently provides around 11 percent of the world's electricity. China, the European Union, the United States, India, Russia, South Korea, and other nations’ have major existing fleets...

April 1, 2016

Follow-Up Drilling Results Indicate Wide Gold Zones at Hendricks Gold Discovery

Gascoyne Resources Limited announced that it has received the final assay results from the 10,000 metre aircore exploration drilling programme...

March 26, 2016

The Oil Market Is Finally Hitting Its Breaking Point

After a significant reduction in investments over the past two years, oil companies can no longer overcome the production declines from legacy wells...

March 15, 2016

N-Sea Expands into the French Offshore Wind Industry

Subsea IMR provider, N-Sea, has signed a letter of intent with CERES Recherches & Expertise Sous-Marine and TechSub Industrie Environement, to provide subsea survey, installation and remediation services to the French offshore wind industry...

March 9, 2016

PDAC 2016 Convention Exceeds 22,000 Attendees

Optimism and opportunity abounded at the PDAC 2016 Convention of The Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada in spite of recent industry challenges...

March 3, 2016

6 Alpha Launches EOD Contracting Division

6 Alpha Associates, a specialist risk consultancy practice, with expertise in the assessment and management of unexploded ordnance, has launched a dedicated explosive ordnance disposal division...

Exploring beneath the La Rioja Valley Basin

A San Juan University team blends old and new data to better understand an important sedimentary basin in the foothills of Argentina

By Graham Chandler

As the crow flies, it’s a good 900 kilometres from the country’s nearest ocean frontage, but the Argentines call this eastern forefront of the Andes the ‘coast’ of La Rioja. They so named the popular Provincial Route 75 because it borders many different hills of the Velasco Mountain Range as it winds its way along valleys, rivers and through character towns set in a dry and sunny microclimate perfect for growing the world renowned Rioja wines.

The name La Rioja is found in its capital city, too—originally called Ciudad de Todos los Santos de la Nueva Rioja—with its mix of old and modern. Narrow streets and history complement the city’s dynamic commercial centre. Tourist brochures list lots to do here.

But it is what lies beneath this wine country that brought Dr. Mario Gimenez, Professor of General Geophysics at San Juan University and his colleagues including Teresa Jordan of Cornell University, New York, and Argentine graduate student Gabriela Bustos to the La Rioja Valley. “This area was explored for oil on the 80s,” says Gimenez. “And our study was to determine more precisely the depth and geometry of this basin.” Of particular interest, he says, were the Mesozoic strata.

The La Rioja Valley Basin lies west of the capital La Rioja. It covers 10,000 sq km in the north central portion of South America’s Pampean Ranges, between 66°–67°W longitude and 29°–30°S latitude. The Pampean Ranges is a geologic province in the easternmost part of the Central Andes, constructed of a series of elongated mountain chains predominantly trending north-south. These mountains were uplifted during the last 10 million years as a result of a reverse faulting, and expose crystalline basement rocks.

The boundaries of the Pampean Ranges region are nearly coincident with boundaries of the segment of the Nazca Plate, ranging between 30°–33°S latitude where plate subduction dip is practically horizontal. Consequently, the deformation which created the modern topographic ranges and basins of the Pampean Ranges province is interpreted to result from the interaction between the overriding plate and nearly horizontal subducted plate during the last several million years.

The La Rioja Valley is a sedimentary basin set in these Pampean Ranges. But the team was faced with a lack of firm information about the geometry, magnitude, and ages of the basin, as well as most of the other sedimentary basins of the Pampean Ranges, which has left limited understanding of its deformation. So they set out to show that analysis of the gravity field, from data that can be obtained more economically, efficiently, and comprehensively than many types of geophysical data, can markedly improve knowledge of the structural segmentation of the Pampean Ranges.

To do this, Gimenez and his team first took gravity and topographic data, including a newly completed gravity survey, and integrated it to create a complete Bouguer anomaly map. They then summed Euler convolutions (which identify a variety of geologic structures—such as faults, contacts, and intrusive dikes—and estimates their depth) and Werner convolutions (which allow the automated detection of depths) techniques with traditional potential fields methods and independent data from seismic and magnetotelluric methods. They used the combination to test and constrain the subsurface geophysical characterization of the basin.

From this, the team could make a new hypothesis. The original 280 km of 2D seismic exploration lines undertaken by the petroleum company YPF (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales) in the La Rioja Valley area in the 1980s had revealed an approximately 3900 meter thick sedimentary cover above the crystalline basement. But from their research, Gimenez and his team suspected otherwise: that the depth to basement in the basin is considerably deeper than that interpreted from the seismic data, so they tested it using 2D and 3D gravity inversion.

The magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were along three profiles, two running from east to west and the third northeast to southwest. These were existing data. “The MT studies were conducted in 2000 in order to search for hot springs,” says Gimenez. For the 2D inversion, the recorded MT points were identified, from north to south. Their interpretation showed the Cenozoic cover thickness would be 3250 m in the south and 3800 m in the north.

Earlier gravity studies the team used included a complete Bouguer anomaly map of the Velasco Range, a simple Bouguer anomaly map for the province of La Rioja and a study of the isostatic compensation of the Velasco Range, all from 1990s research. To ensure adequate spatial distribution, the team added to these by making new gravity measurements, primarily for locations in the La Rioja Valley Basin. Gravity data were reduced topographically by means of Hayford zones with 167-km diameters. The topographic correction adjusted the gravity effect produced by a mass excess (such as a mountain) or deficit (valley) with respect to the elevation of the observation point. Two regional and local elevation models were used to correct this effect; elevation models were obtained from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of the United States Geological Survey.

To separate gravity effects, the team used two common filtering techniques, wavelength filtering and upward continuation, to remove long wavelength features attributable to Moho depth variation and highlight the shorter wavelength features attributable to sedimentary basin geometry and structures. Geosoft Oasis montaj software was used to analyze upward continuations of the gravity field for a set of different heights, from 10 to 40 km ASL. Results that best reflect the regional effects were obtained with filtering by upward continuation at 30 km height. So to estimate the depth to the crystalline basement of the La Rioja Valley Basin, they calculated an inversion of the residual Bouguer anomaly residual from upward continuation at 30 km.

Gravity modeling requires knowledge of densities of subsurface bodies, which can be approximated by using standard relationships between densities and seismic wave velocities of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Usually one can extrapolate densities from wells. But as no deep boreholes existed in the area, the team obtained the velocity from seismic refraction profiles.

Gimenez and his team then overlaid a series of layers, defined by grids overlying a half-space; each layer assigned density values. GM-SYS 3D modeling software was used to compute the subsurface model response: a map of the top of the crystalline basement of the basin.

Final analysis: basin geometry is dominated by a depocenter in the south-western part of the basin where there is a maximum thickness of nearly 6000 m of sedimentary rock. “The asymmetry of sedimentary fill coincides with estimates based on seismic reflection profiles but clearly exceeds magnitudes estimated by either seismic or MT methods,” concluded their report.

Gimenez and his team like the Geosoft software they use—he says the University of San Juan bought Oasis montaj and several modules eight years ago. “We have modules for processing of gravity and magnetism, filtered and Modeling 2 and 3D,” he says. “The Oasis montaj platform is very comprehensive. It enables a variety of processes in the same environment.”

As a result, they’re very satisfied with the La Rioja basin project. “The study contributed to a better understanding of the basin, covering an area greater than that analyzed by the seismic exploration,” says Gimenez. They plan to carry on with exploration and analysis of adjacent basins now. “We are continuing to work towards the north of the basin, to compare development of the other basins.”

And, he says, further oil and gas exploration is now imminent.“Repsol YPF has several blocks in the north of Argentina with exploratory expectations,” says Gimenez. “Among these is the La Rioja Valley.”

Bustos, the graduate student, has made excellent use of this, her thesis work, too—she now works with privately owned Argentinian oil and gas company Capsa in Buenos Aires. The company’s fields are located in the province of Chubut in southern Argentina, far south along the foothills from the La Rioja wine country.

The writer acknowledges with gratitude the assistance provided by Dr. Mario Gimenez in preparation of this article, including “Gravity characterization of the La Rioja Valley Basin, Argentina” by Gimenez et al, which appeared in GEOPHYSICS,VOL. 74, NO. 3 MAY-JUNE 2009.